In this article, USask history professor Benjamin Hoy explores the methods used by the Canadian and U.S. governments to enforce colonial frameworks of gender, sexuality, and kinship structures. Drawing on work from both borderland scholars and historians of gender, Hoy includes a discussion of perceived “deviant” practices, and of the colonial treatment of western morality as a universal ethic. The article details strategies of surveillance, resource and mobility deprivation, and extradition. These tactics were used by colonial governments and their agents to enforce social and behavioral moralities on non-conforming peoples and communities in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
The iPortal (Indigenous Studies Portal) is a database of full-text electronic resources such as articles, e-books, theses, government publications, videos, oral histories, and digitized archival documents and photographs. The iPortal content has a primary focus on Indigenous peoples of Canada with a secondary focus on North American materials and beyond.